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A NHNE Special Report:
The Great Pyramid & The Sphinx
Friday, November 25, 1994
By David Sunfellow
© Copyright 1994 By NewHeavenNewEarth
Published By NewHeavenNewEarth / firstname.lastname@example.org
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The Great Pyramid & The SphinxA Summary Of Current
Archeological, Geological & Psychic Controversies
By David Sunfellow
Ancient Egypt. No other human civilization lasted longer or produced a greater collection of astonishing monuments. And of all the monuments ancient Egypt produced--indeed, of all the monuments the race of man has ever produced--none are more grand, more genuinely stunning than the Great Pyramid of Giza and its solitary guardian, the Great Sphinx.
Who built these incredible monuments and why? When were they built and how? Are these ancient monuments the handiwork of ancient Egyptians as today's archeologists and Egyptologists believe, or are they the handiwork of other, more technologically advanced civilizations--possibly Atlanteans or extraterrestrials?
Although everyone (professional and lay person alike) seems to have some kind of theory about how these great monuments came to be, no one has yet come forth with a theory that ties together all the pieces of the puzzle (at least no one we know of). There are, however, several fascinating controversies presently whirling around these ancient monuments that we wanted to share with you.
To begin with, a story released by the Associated Press in early October of this year claims that workers repairing the Sphinx have discovered an ancient passageway that leads into the Sphinx. The passageway, which is located halfway between the Sphinx's outstretched paws and its curved tail, is located on the left, or northern side of the mysterious monument. Zahi Hawass, the Giza Antiquity Chief, is reported to believe that the passageway dates from pharaonic times, at least 4,600 years ago.
Though Hawass said that he is thrilled about the new discovery, he predicts that little more than rocks and dust will be found once they enter the Sphinx. After consulting thousands of old Sphinx pictures, a picture of an earlier 1926 restoration effort revealed a man standing at the entrance to the passageway. Apparently the passageway was never entered and resealed with new blocks. Hawass plans to remove the blocks and see what the passageway holds in February of 1995.
In related news, a special that aired on NBC on November 10, 1993 called THE MYSTERY OF THE SPHINX, presented seismographic evidence that several cavities lie buried near the Sphinx. One rectangular cavity in particular, which seismographs measured to be be 9 meters by 12 meters, was located in front of the Sphinx about 5 meters below the ground.
THE MYSTERY OF THE SPHINX SPECIAL also presented recent findings which indicate that the Sphinx itself is at least twice as old as modern Egyptologists presently believe. Modern Egyptologists presently believe the Sphinx was built approximately 4,600 years ago, but new geological discoveries indicate the Sphinx is at least 9,000 years old, and probably older! This new evidence is based on evidence that most of the erosion the Sphinx has suffered is WATER erosion (specifically rain water erosion), rather than erosion due to wind and sand. Simply put, this means the Sphinx was built over 9,000 years ago when the Egyptian climate was a much wetter than it is was 4,600 years ago. If this is true, it means the Sphinx was NOT built by the pharaohs of ancient Eygpt. Furthermore, it also means the entire history of ancient Egypt may have to be rewritten.
When author and self-taught Egyptologist John Anthony West first realized that the erosion on the Sphinx might be due to water erosion, he contacted Dr. Robert Schoch, a respected geologist from Boston University. Together they traveled to Egypt to study the Sphinx first hand and immediately drew fire from both Hawass and renowned American Egyptologist, Mark Lehner. Lehner, who is regarded as the world's foremost expert on the Sphinx, went so far as to publicly declare that both West and Schoch were "ignorant and insensitive." Although taken aback by the uproar their research evoked from the world's leading Egyptologists, West and Schoch continued their work and later presented their findings to an annual gathering of the Geological Society of America. Not only did the convention of geologists find their work faultless, but some 275 of their colleagues offered to help them in their research.
A short time later, several of the key players were invited to debate one another at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Although West was not allowed to participate because he did not possess college credentials, Schoch presented the geological evidence while Lehner led the Egyptologist challenge. The Egyptologists claimed that there was absolutely no physical proof, in the form of artifacts or written records, that supported the geologists claims. On the other hand, the Egyptologists contended that there was overwhelming evidence that both the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid were built approximately 4,600 years ago by a series of father, son, and grandson pharaohs: Khufu (Cheops), Khafne (Chephren), and Menkure. The first pharaoh, Khufu, had the Great Pyramid built for himself, while his son and grandson, had the two smaller Giza pyramids built for themselves.
Although no-one knows for sure when the Sphinx was built (because, unlike the three Giza pyramids, nothing has been found to tell who built it, or when), it is widely believed to have been built shortly after the Great Pyramid by Khafne, the son of Khufu. Many, in fact, believe that it is the face of Khafne that is carved on the Sphinx. Recently, other scientists have begun to challenge this popular belief. After exhaustive scientific analysis, these experts believe that the face on the Sphinx is not the face of Khafne at all. When measured carefully against other ancient renditions of this pharaoh, the face of the Sphinx is markedly different.
As for the Great Pyramid, current archeological models say that it was built in a mere 23 years during the reign of Khufu. This model is based on the following:
- There are hieroglyphics inside the Great Pyramid that claim the pyramid was built by work gangs for the pharaoh Khufu.
- Records, in various parts of Egypt, indicate that all 94 pyramids built in Egypt were built during the same 100 year time frame--between 4,500 and 4,600 years ago.
- Bits of charcoal, extracted from mortar in the original stones of the Great Pyramid by Lehner, were Carbon-14 dated back to 3,000 BC (or 5,000 years ago).
- Pyramids that Egyptologists presently believe were built before the Great Pyramid show various levels of expertise--earlier ones were built less perfectly than later ones, indicating that whomever built the pyramids was learning as they went, and that the Great Pyramid was their crowning achievement. The Great Pyramid, in other words, owed its flawless construction to ancient Egyptian trial and error, rather than to an advanced race of Atlanteans or extra-terrestials.
- Among other things, there are descriptions of how the pyramids were built that have been successfully used to build scale models and there is physical evidence, in the form of quarries and ramps, that bear witness to the fact that the pyramids were built the way the ancient records say they were. Ancient Egyptians, in other words, possessed all the knowledge, tools, techniques, organizational skill and manpower they needed to build the Great Pyramid and Sphinx and, what's more, they left physical evidence supporting their written claims.
Pretty solid evidence.
Or is it?
Some ancient Egyptian rulers had a passion for altering the works of those who preceded them. A pharaoh named Amenhotep IV changed his name to Ikhnaton and encouraged his people to give up all their old gods and worship only one God, Aten, the Radiant Sun. Throughout Egypt, he promoted his new religion by removing the word "gods"from tombs and monuments and replacing it with "Amen." His successor, Tutankhamen, then went back and erased what Ikhnaton had written, restoring the original inscriptions. Another, more self-interested pharaoh named Ramses II had his name carved on monuments built by earlier rulers. Is it possible that others have altered or misrepresented the records of Giza, claiming that Khufu, Khafne, and Menkure built the monuments there when, in fact, they were built by others?
Another, more substantial concern revolves around the sheer magnitude of what took place in Giza. Building the Great Pyramid in a mere 23 years seems like an impossible task. It consists of over 2 million massive blocks and means that approximately one block (weighing an average of two and a half tons each) would have had to be set in place every three minutes. And then there were massive ramps to build and later remove, huge white sandstone siding stones to cut and transport down river, tunnels to dig, mistakes to correct and thousands upon thousands of workers to feed, house and organize FOR DECADES. And we're only talking about the Great Pyramid, not the Sphinx or the other pyramids and monuments in the area. Is such a feat really possible by a relatively primitive people in such a short amount of time?
According to Lehner, the archeological evidence says "Yes." Lehner believes the more important question is "Why?" Although ancient Egyptians possessed deep religious convictions and, as a part of those beliefs, were exceedingly interested in death and preparing their pharaohs for the next life, why go to all the trouble and expense of building such huge monuments? Couldn't smaller, less time consuming and expensive monuments suffice, as they did for the long reign of Egyptian kings who came later?
Significantly, Lehner has strong ties to the A.R.E. (The Association for Research and Enlightenment) which is dedicated to the work of Edgar Cayce, the famous Virginia Beach, Virginia psychic. Although presently out of print, Lehner authored a book called, "The Egyptian Legacy,"which explained and championed Cayce's psychic viewpoint concerning ancient Egypt. The A.R.E. also helped fund some of Lenher's research in Egypt and published a series of interviews with Lehner describing his work and discoveries.
Cayce, who died in 1945, gave a series of psychic readings that said the legendary civilization of Atlantis was responsible for many of the accomplishments of ancient Egypt. Among other things, the Cayce readings claim that the Great Pyramid and Sphinx were built Atlanteans. In addition, Cayce also said that the Atlanteans built a secret "Hall of Records" near the Sphinx which contained records of the Atlantian civilization."The Hall of Records, which has not yet been uncovered... lies between or along that entrance from the Sphinx to the temple... or the pyramid, in a pyramid of its own." (Cayce 2329-3)
"Q. Give in detail what the sealed room contains.
"A. A record of Atlantis from the beginning of those periods when the spirit took form, or began the encasements in that land; and the developments of the peoples throughout their sojourn; together with the record of the first destruction, and the changes that took place in the land; with the record of the sojournings of the peoples and their varied activities in other lands; and a record of the meetings of all the nations or lands, for the activities in the destructions that became necessary with the final destruction of Atlantis; and the building of the Pyramid of Initiation; together with whom, what and where the opening of the records would come, that are as copies from the sunken Atlantis. For with the change, it must rise again.
"In position, this lies--as the sun rises from the waters--as the line of the shadow falls between the paws of the Sphinx; that was set later as the sentinel or guard and which may not be entered from the connecting chambers from the Sphinx's right paw until the time has been fulfilled when the changes must be active in this sphere of man's experience. Then between the Sphinx and the river." (Cayce 378-16)
According to Cayce, the Great Pyramid took 100 years to build and it, along with its counterparts the Sphinx and Hall of Records, were built 12,500 years ago!--a far cry from the 23 years and 4,600 years ago that modern Egyptologists believe. Cayce also indicated that the Great Pyramid was built using advanced techniques that could float massive blocks of stone through the air--an even further cry from hundreds of thousands of Egyptian workers manually hauling massive blocks of limestone up elaborate clay ramps embedded with wooden slides.
After years of searching for evidence to support Cayce's psychic picture of ancient Egypt, Lehner has come to the conclusion that Cayce's Atlantean-based view is completely bogus, as are similar views held by other psychics and sensitives around the world. In another television special presented by NOVA entitled, THIS OLD PYRAMID, Lehner attempted to construct a scaled down version of the Great Pyramid using techniques which are inscribed in ancient Egyptian temples. Along with the help of an American stone mason and a group of Egyptian workers, Lehner successfully demonstrated how ancient Egyptians could have constructed the massive monuments. This seemed to prove the Egyptologist's point of view and put the whole matter to rest: Cayce was wrong. The current Egyptologist view, complete with elaborate artifacts to support their position, was right. And that was that--until those darn geologists showed up...
So is Lehner and the Egyptologists right? Or are the geologists? Or is Cayce and other psychics? Or perhaps the real answer is a combination of them all. Only time will tell. And, in the meantime, the plot thickens...
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